Every person can correct the medieval-looking image of man instilled in him by his upbringing in order to learn to think on the basis of a scientific view of man, to understand his life better and to live it better.
The above-mentioned quotation, which is attributed to the US President Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945) is commonplace in diplomacy. If one examines relevant political decisions under this aspect, one’s eyes open. As a fellow human being, however, one feels co-responsible for the fate of people, because as a rule one has allowed a minority to live at the expense of the majority without doing anything.
Yet the world is so rich that all people without exception could live in prosperity.
But this is not allowed to happen. Injustice would not have to be; no one would be short-changed in life. Hunger and hardship would not arise either.
But the rulers and their proxy politicians have planned not to allow the natural-scientific image of man to arise, so that people do not learn to think and understand their lives better as well as live better.
Anthropological premises of human nature
Human image and worldview are of great importance to individuals, whether they are aware of them or not. The conception of man includes views about the nature of man, about his living conditions and development, about his position in nature, in the cosmos and in society. Every theory about man depends on anthropological premises of his culture, on the concept of human nature and thus also on the worldview.
From a scientific point of view, the concept of human nature implies the complete absence of genetically determined aggressive drives. This results in the ability of human beings and the necessity to live and organise themselves in a peaceful society without violence and war.
A second assumption results from man’s biological existence: Man has no pre-defined instincts; at birth he has only a few reflexes.
It follows that the intellectual faculties, the emotional reactions, the subjective apprehension of the environment, the mental conceptions of the external world and the personality of man are acquired through socialisation. “Socialisation” as a lifelong learning process of integration or adaptation of the growing human being into the surrounding society and culture. People can and must learn everything. This learning requires a relationship with at least one fellow human being (1).
Work, Love and Community as the Three Great Tasks of Life
Human life as a whole has the character of a task. At every moment of our existence we are confronted with tasks that we have to overcome. The three great tasks of life that inevitably urge us to confront are work, love and community. One can only agree with this view of the individual psychologist Alfred Adler.
The necessity of work stems from the fact that people can only sustain themselves if they engage in productive activity. In this way they contribute to the general welfare, which secures the existence of the human race.
The requirement of love is given by the fact that nature has provided for bisexuality and thus created the task of connecting with a love partner.
Work and love are also community issues. They arise from the fact that man is a social creature and that all his life problems have a social character. From this it can be deduced that a healthy way of life requires above all a sense of community, a bond with one’s fellow human beings. This is expressed not only in the willingness to work and love, but also in the sympathy for questions of the larger context, questions of city and country, people and humanity (2).
The main principles of the concept of man, including socio-biological, educational and cultural dimensions.
The first dimension is the socio-biological one. It is: Man is a social living being. In this respect, the survival and development of the human species depend on mutual aid (Kropotkin) and interpersonal relationships. Finally, man is a child of his culture, which in turn creates culture.
The second, educational dimension says: Man is dependent on his upbringing. This means that character, behaviour and intellectual abilities are not innate, but develop within the framework of interpersonal relationships and the socio-cultural milieu.
The third, cultural dimension says: Man is a being of culture and dependent on it. This means that man creates his image of man; his world view influences his view of man, his view of education and his interpersonal relationships (3).