Over the past decade, artificial intelligence (AI) has emerged as the software engine that drives the Fourth Industrial Revolution, a technological force affecting all disciplines, economies and industries. AI-powered services are already being applied to create more personalized shopping experiences,
1 drive productivity
2 and increase farming efficiency. In the future, they will enable the rise of self-driving cars
3 and the large-scale access to precision medicine with appropriate data governance.
4 AI systems have been able to do so thanks to the exponential growth of human and machinegenerated data leveraged by powerful machine learning algorithms,
5 whose performance on a given task increases with labelled data.
This recent progress is remarkable in important respects, but also creates unique challenges. Indeed, without proper oversight, AI may replicate or even exacerbate
6 human bias and discrimination, cause potential job displacement
7 and lead to other unintended
8 consequences. This is particularly problematic when AI is deployed in high-stakes domains such as criminal justice,
11 or employment.
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