Antarctica just logged its coldest winter on record, with average temperatures hitting a blustery -78 degrees Fahrenheit. Individual temperatures hit as low as -144 degrees Fahrenheit. This is the coldest South Pole winter since records began in 1957.
The dramatically cold temperatures are part of what some scientists see as a larger cooling pattern in Antarctica. NASA published a study in 2015 which showed that the Antarctic ice sheet had gained billions of tons of ice each year for decades. That included a net gain of 82 billion tons of ice per year between 2003 and 2008.
But there are significant disagreements over the status of the South Pole. Until recently, the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change maintained that there was “high confidence” that the Antarctic ice sheet was losing mass. It has since shifted course, but other scientists maintain the South Pole is warming up.
“It’s chaos basically,” said Jan Lenaerts of scientists’ efforts to understand the ice sheets on the north and south poles last week. Lenaerts is an assistant professor in the Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences at the University of Colorado Boulder, and a member of a newly established team to study “polar ice melt.”
Read more: A Freezing Antarctic Winter Shatters Records