‘The possible effects of graphene on human health were examined at the cellular, tissue and whole body levels in comparison to CNTs. The extent and mechanism by which cells interact and uptake graphene is considered critically important, since once inside a living cell the material could interact with or disrupt cellular processes and cause damage. Exposing the body to carbon nanomaterials could result in either their accumulation in the tissues or elimination through excretion. Accumulated nanomaterials could pose a risk to organ function, and therefore to health.
At the level of the whole body, the authors indicate that there are two main safety factors to consider regarding exposure to CNTs and graphene. The first is their ability to generate a response by the body’s immune system; the second is their ability to cause inflammation and cancer.’