‘Working with Italy’s Ministry of Economic Development, Vodafone won a tender 18 months ago to create an extensive 5G testbed in the city of Milan. Since then, it has collaborated with 38 partners to develop close to 50 separate use cases, investing €90 million in the process. Vodafone says all the partners were interested to understand not just what 5G would bring to their own businesses, but also to society in general. It quickly discovered that 5G brings with it a new way of working, with real collaboration to co-develop and co-create services with completely different business models. The challenge now is to transform these trials into actual commercial products with end to end service assurance.